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Retention, Detention, and Storm Water Ponds for California

California did not create nine water boards to manage the entire state’s water supply just to prevent the loss of valuable fresh water. 

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California Backyard Ponds

Residential and backyard ponds make up the majority of new water features added to California by volume alone.

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Liner Recommendations for All Types of California Ponds

Like ponds built anywhere in the country, California ponds need reliable and flexible liners that conform to their every curve and bump. 

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Aquaculture Liner Requirements in California

Fish farming is big business, thanks in no small part to the development of new and better flexible liner products. 

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Ponds and Water Features for California Golf Courses, Resorts, and More

When drought conditions affect larger parts of the state, water restrictions are increased by the various water boards in California.

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California’s Weather and Soil Conditions: How Pond Liners Are Affected

While each state has its unique challenges for pond construction, California’s natural conditions can be particularly hard on liner materials.

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Water Limitations, Droughts and California Ponds

Water restrictions have been in place for decades in most of California, just like the rest of the Western states. 

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Risks of Tailings Loss and Environmental Exposure

Since the beginning of the modern mining industry, there have been hundreds of tailings collapses, slides, and floods. 

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Can Tailings Ever Be Reused?

Mining is full of materials that are not the ore or mineral being targeted for excavation. 

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Lining Recommendations for Tailing Storage

With so many challenges to storing and containing tailings in the long run, it is important to choose a liner that can handle the material. 

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Wet vs Dry Storage for Mine Tailings

Mine tailings may be produced in the thousands of tons per mine, but they are not all uniform in their characteristics.

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Primary and Secondary Containment for Tailings

Tailings are a potentially hazardous material, depending on the exact content of the material and what was being mined during its production.

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Tailings vs Overburden vs Other Materials

Modern mining operations may produce thousands of tons of tailings after the ore is removed and processed for valuable materials.

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Types of Impoundments Used to Contain Tailings

Whether kept relatively dry and heaped or mixed as a sludge and pumped into a pond, tailings are generally contained by impoundments. 

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Tailings: Why Are They So Difficult to Contain?

While there are many other materials that can risk human health or cause environmental damage, tailings are among the most challenging to contain.

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Choosing Landfill Gas and Leachate Collection Systems

Everything from the exact number of wells installed on a landfill cell, to the type of collection system, affects the selection of a cover material. 

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Well Spacing for Adequate Control and Efficient Gas Capture

Most of the factors that control the final gas production rate of any particular landfill cell, such as soil compaction or liner selection, are chosen long before it’s closed. 

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Site Preparation Tips for Landfills Designed for Gas Production

Designing a landfill cell with gas collection in mind from the start, is the best way to maximize production over time.

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How Liners Play an Essential Role in Landfill Gas Collection

It’s easy to assume that all gas issues in a landfill cell are handled by the cover and that the liner only manages leachate and other liquids.

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Capping Landfills with the Right Cover Material for Gas Collection

Gas release may begin as soon as the first layer of waste is added to the cell, but these early discharges of carbon dioxide and methane are usually permitted as long as they’re limited. 

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Condensate and Leachate: Inevitable Byproducts of Gas Production

While landfill systems designed for gas collection and control may be primarily focused on gases, liquids also play important roles and can’t be overlooked. 

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What’s in Landfill Gas?

Landfill gas is often mistaken for being a single type of gas due to being referred to by the LFG term. 

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Why Collect and Contain Landfill Gas?

All waste eventually breaks down, even if it takes thousands of years.

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Handling the Tailings and Residues Left After Ore Processing

Ore processing may be an environmentally friendly and energy efficient way to recover metals that would otherwise be lost. 

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Pregnant, Processing, and Barren Ponds

Each heap leaching facility has its own system for dealing with the leachate that flows from the pad. 

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